Guide: Default Resource Usage

Hellbovine

Well-Known Member
This guide discusses the default resource usage of a clean install of Windows 10 Home 21H2. This information is needed by people tweaking the operating system so they can compare their task manager to the defaults and see if they are making progress on reducing overhead.

TASK MANAGER
Windows 10 21H2 Normal Mode:
CPU Processes: 107
CPU Threads: 979
CPU Handles: 35458
Memory: 1366 (In use)
Memory: 15 (In use compressed)
Memory: 31 (modified)
Memory: 319 (standby)
Memory: 14675 (free)

Windows 10 21H2 Normal Mode (Services):
The services list is attached as a PDF for download, named Services_Default_Normal.

Windows 10 21H2 Safe Mode With Networking:
CPU Processes: 51
CPU Threads: 673
CPU Handles: 19124
Memory: 965 (In use)
Memory: 0 (In use compressed)
Memory: 51 (modified)
Memory: 228 (standby)
Memory: 15108 (free)

Windows 10 21H2 Safe Mode With Networking (Services):
The services list is attached as a PDF for download, named Services_Default_Safe.

FILE EXPLORER
This version of Windows had an install size on the disk of 26.9 gigabytes.

In modern operating systems there is a substantial amount of space used up by certain features, and all of this space is not necessarily system files. The three biggest culprits of used disk space come from the following:

- The pagefile uses a few gigabytes at a minimum, and will grow as needed.
- Hibernation uses a huge amount, based on installed RAM (more memory means a bigger file).
- Windows reserves about 8 gigabytes for use as a cache.

Removing all three of the listed items reduces the size by 18.04 gigabytes, resulting in a total install size of 8.86 gigabytes.

TEST METHODOLOGY
This benchmark should be considered a best case scenario, and it is likely that many users will see much higher resource usage, due to a number of other factors. I will explain what I did to achieve these numbers and why they may be lower than yours:

- The install was done with internet unplugged, which means a local account was created, rather than a Microsoft account which adds extra overhead due to the syncing/online aspect. In addition to that, without internet during the installation process, Windows is unable to retrieve updates and apply them to the installation, which would also increase overhead, since updates and new features tend to add more bloat.

- No drivers were installed, except for the necessary ones that Windows automatically applies during install, such as the basic display driver.

- This test computer has 16 GB of memory installed. The memory consumption of Windows will automatically adjust itself and increase in computers with more installed memory, and decrease in those with less.

- The BIOS settings on this machine are also highly optimized for performance/gaming, and all settings which could add more resource usage to Windows have been disabled, such as Virtualization.

- To capture this information I turned off all of the privacy features during Windows Setup, including Cortana, and I waited until I reached the desktop and then I entered rundll32.exe advapi32.dll,ProcessIdleTasks into a command prompt. This is a documented Microsoft command that was meant to be used for benchmarking purposes. Basically, it forces the computer to work through the entire scheduled tasks list, plus all of the things waiting in the background, and this has a dramatic effect on reducing the amount of processes/threads/handles shown in the Task Manager after it is finished, and the computer is rebooted. This command takes about 30 minutes (give or take 15 minutes) to finish, depending on how fast your hardware is.

Note: in the PDF attachments some of the services have an underscore and a number at the end ( _2b09d) and it is important to know that these numbers change randomly, but if you were to tweak these via a registry key or with NTLite the numbers are not needed.

For more guides like this one, visit the following link:
https://www.ntlite.com/community/index.php?threads/gaming-lounge.2999/
 

Attachments

  • Services_Default_Normal.pdf
    70.3 KB
  • Services_Default_Safe.pdf
    70.3 KB
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garlin

Moderator
Staff member
To give you an idea of some of the things that happen in the background during this time, it will finish installing Microsoft OneDrive, it adjusts a few thousand registry entries, it runs the Ngen queue cleanup for .NET framework, and then every Microsoft bloatware that has background activity waiting, such as the Microsoft Store, tries to go online and perform their tasks, like downloading Candy Crush and other useless stuff.
This is expected behavior for post-setup Windows.

Ngen is doing the needful. You can disable the service, or run commands to immediately force .NET cache regeneration.
WU is updating all UWP (Store) apps in the background, and installing OneDrive & Teams.

All these conditions are tweakable, and discussed in other threads. There's a lot of onion layers to peel away.
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
it was exported using the default tab-separated view
If you Remove Columns and just leave Name and Startup type it will be easier to read.
I usually do either of these, Startup type and arrange type then Name, or Name in alphabeticcal order then Startup type.
Much clearer when you export as a list(.txt).

01.JPG

02.JPG
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
How would you export that as a txt to desktop? I tried summat and it didnt work :(.
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
Thank you ia_100000060.gif

In return for that here is a little contribution.
dism /online /Get-Features /Format:Table /English >"%userprofile%\Desktop\Features.txt"
dism /online /Get-Capabilities /Format:Table /English >"%userprofile%\Desktop\Capabilities.txt"
dism /online /Get-Packages /Format:Table /English >"%userprofile%\Desktop\Packages.txt"
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
Windows 10 21H2 Normal Mode (Task Manager):
CPU Handles: 35458

Windows 10 21H2 Safe Mode With Networking (Task Manager):
CPU Handles: 19124

With no drivers other than whats in a default iso then updated i have seen Handles over 40,000 ia_100000303.gif
W7 and 8.1 are 7-9xxx and 12xxx respectively. Although 8.1 is higher than 7 it can be tweaked down to comparable numbers.
 
D

Deleted member 8142

Guest
My scenario Win10 VM 2004 Latest 1682 Build After 10 minutes of System Idle State without any app in process :
CPU handles : 17K
they increase to almost 25K if i continuesly work with multi apps same time including FF browser too.

Edit : Win10 21H2 Second Tuesday Patch May 2022;)
May 2022 Win10 21H2 Updates
 
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Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
I dont care what the usage is when im running stuff, i care what the os is doing on its own.
On a highly tweaked 1809 i dont even get close to the default numbers when im running stuff, wayyyyy below.
Firefox is a resource hog :mad:
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
LTSC 1809 can be brought down to 12xxx handles fairly easily. LTSC 2021 is comparable to 1809, i did compare the two some time back and its here somewhere.

Problem is Windows 10 is a family of operating systems, while you might get 2 consecutive builds like 1809 and 1903 and can use the same tweaks on both 1809 and 2021 might be different enough to class them as different os's.
 
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Hellbovine

Well-Known Member
I did a lot of Googling trying to find legit ways to buy LTSC, but I didn't really come up with anything. I've heard you can just call Microsoft's business licensing and if you buy 4 total licenses I think it was, you can get an LTSC too. So basically you buy 1 real LTSC for like $200-300 and then 3 of the cheapest licenses for something you don't care about, costing like $50 each, for a total of like $350-450 I guess? Aside from that though the only other approach is to buy a cd key online from vendors that buy in bulk from Microsoft and resell them, and the reality is those keys are all reused, they resell the same keys if someone doesn't register them, meaning a week later after you buy it and install, the other guy who bought the same key can go and register it and now you have problems.

Is there an easier/better way?
 

Hellbovine

Well-Known Member
Hehe, I ended up going with Home edition for myself, simply because all my family members are using Home. I plan on sending them all my tweaked ISO once I'm finished, and I figured it would save me some headache by working with the same edition they all have. Plus its the most common version in general, so things like drivers and such prioritize Home over others. Nowadays it's not really an issue, but at one time with older OS it was a thing, you'd have drivers for XP Home, but missing an updated one for Pro or some other problem.

I'd totally pay like $400 bucks though if Microsoft would release an official gaming edition for general consumption, just a Windows without all the bloat. They don't even need to tweak anything for me, just remove all the baked in crap and telemetry.
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
Hehe, I ended up going with Home edition for myself, simply because all my family members are using Home. I plan on sending them all my tweaked ISO once I'm finished, and I figured it would save me some headache by working with the same edition they all have.
If you are "the" family tech guy that makes complete sense.
 

Clanger

Moderator
Staff member
I'd totally pay like $400 bucks though if Microsoft would release an official gaming edition for general consumption, just a Windows without all the bloat. They don't even need to tweak anything for me, just remove all the baked in crap and telemetry.
They wont so you cant so you are FoL.
I want a basic desktop os without all the glitz and schmitz, im FoL too.
 

garlin

Moderator
Staff member
The best option in the US is find a willing SMB (Small/Medium Business) reseller partner. They're willing to work with a handful of licenses.
I will PM you one I used two years ago when ESU pricing got started.
 
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